The Valley of Swat has been the land of varying cultures and civilizations it has been abode of ancient religions. The vallley of Swat has witnessed the rise and fall of the powerful generations of men and women. It has witnessed the rise and fall of Buddhism before the advent Christianity and Islam. History tells us that Buddha second (Padmma Sumbawa) was born in this valley. Buddhism spread in all direction from here. It reached Tibet, China and Japan. 
Padmma Sumbawa
Famous Chinese traveler Heun Song and Fahian came to this valley to get Buddhist education. They have called this valley as Mangchilli and Udhyan or Udhyana in their writings. The river Swat was called Suvastu. They have written of the great progress and advancement of Buddhism in his area. There were 1400 monasteries along the Banks of the river Swat alone. The ringing of the bells in these places of worship at night creating mysterious impression all around the valley. 
Buddhist monasteries in Swat Valley
Alexander the great arrived in Swat in 327 BC via Afghanistan through Kunar and Bajour. He fought for six months with Raja Arnos of that time and was fatally wounded in a battle with the local tribes for the first time in his life. This fatal injury subsequently took his life.
Alexander Coin
Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi arrived in Swat in the 11th century to spread the light of Islam and conquered the entire valley. He assigned the task of defeating Raja Geera to one of his general name Pir Khushal. The Raja fled his fortress and was killed while escaping. Pir Khushal too was martyred in this battle. His mausoleum is located in Odigram Swat. 

Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi Mosque 
Swat remained under the control of Swatis and Dalazaks. Afterwards the Yousufzai from Kabul (Afghanistan) capture Swat via Bajour and Dir Zaheer Udding Babar the increasing power of the Yousufzai and sensed a threat to his kingdom. He attack Swat but the then head of Yousafzai's, Malak Ahmad and his advisor Shiekh Mili remained confined in their fortress and Mora mountains. Babar failed to break in to fortress. He offered a treaty with Malak Ahmad because his main aim was to capture the whole of India which seems impossible without the active support and help of these brave Yousufzai's. Babar made and offer of marriage with Shah Mansoor's daughter, a brother of Malak Ahmad Khan. Malak Ahmad lies buried at Allahdand in Malankand Agency and Sheikh Melli  at Village Qambar in Swat near G.T. Road. In 1555, Mansingh, in order to avenge the loss of life inflicted upon the Mughuls at the hands of hands of Yousafzais and Pir Roshan, attacked  the Yousafzais with and army of fifteen thousand soldiers. But this general of the Mughuls was defeated by the Yousafzais and several of his close associates namely Mahesh Das, Birbal, Hakim Abdul Faiz were killed in the battle. To avenge this defeat, Raja Tordal in 1787 camped at Attock Fort and prepared for a battle with the Yousafzais but Ultimately had to cease fighting and sign a treaty.

Syed Akbar Shah established the rule of Shariat in Swat from 1849 to 1856 with the active help of Siadu Baba, the Akhond of Swat. But unfortunately, Syed Akbar Shah died suddenly in 1856 and this Shariat Government collapsed. Sir Beerat Edward writes, "If Syed Akbar Shah were alive at the time of the war for freedom in 1857, the whole scenario of the war would be totally different". 
Hazrat Saidu Baba Mazar
In 1863, the Britishers made an attempt to crush the freedom fighters in Buner but the people of Swat and Buner concertedly defended their independence and freedom by defeating the trianed British army at Ambela, Buner. In 1897, the tribesmen of Swat under the command of Sartor Faqir fought a battle against the Britishers  at Malakand and stopped them from entering to Swat. At one time, the English army succeeded in reaching Mingora but they were immediately pushed back and expelled from Swat. In 1914, Syed Abdul Jabbar Shah Sethane Bacha established a relatively stable government at Kabal Swat and expelled Miangul Abdul Wadood from Swat. But he contrived a plot against Abdul Jabbar Shah, got him deposed and himself became Badshah through a Tribal Jirga. 
Syed Abdul Jabbar Shah Sethana Bacha
Miangul Abdul Wadood brought order to Swat but for doing this he got killed all his opponents including his brother. He handed over the government of Swat to his son Miangul Abdul Haq Jahanzeb (Waali Swat) on 12 September, 1949.
Miangul Jahanzeb with his untold talents tried to improve the system of Swat state in conformity with the requirements of modern times. He brought adequate improvements in the field of communication, Education and Health. He founded Jahanzeb College in 1952. He had immense interest in Tourism. He converted homes into Hotels at Bahrain in order to promote Tourism and introduced the holding of Melas on Eid occasions. This attracted Tourists to Swat.
On 29 July, 1969 a military dictator, General Yahya Khan ordered the merger of Swat state into the provincial setup through a presidential ordinance. 
Miangul Abdul Wadood (Badshah Sahib) with General Ayub Khan and Miangul Abdul Haq Jahazeb (Waali Swat)

(All the above data story has been extracted from the book "Tourism in the Swat Valley written by Al-Haaj Zahid Khan Translated by Prof. Fazal Rabi)

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